Working Principle and Uses
ry cell battery was being developed in the year 1887 by a scientist named Karl Gassner of German origin. This device was later patented in the year 1982.
Before we begin with understanding the composition and working of a dry cell battery, it is important to understand what a battery is. A battery is a device or an instrument that yields electricity by undergoing certain chemical reactions.
Unlike the wet cell batteries, the dry cell batteries are non rechargeable. The dry cell battery as the name suggests doesn't carry any type of liquid. Instead it contains a paste which acts as the electrolyte. The cell battery consists of a paste because it is thicker in consistency and thus, will not spill. This battery electrolyte contains little moisture, just enough to allow current to flow through it. Read further to know more about the dry cell battery in detail.
The role of any battery is to convert chemical energy to electrical energy. Dry cell battery is a voltage producing battery, containing the electrolyte chemical in the form of a thick paste. It produces voltage of about 1.5 volts. According to science, an electrode is a conductor used in a battery to run the circuit. It can have positive or negative charge.
In the above diagram (which represents the parts of a dry cell battery), the zinc casing provides enclosing to the electrolyte and the cathode as a whole. Ammonium chloride is the electrolyte used in this type of battery. Just ahead of the electrolyte lies manganese dioxide separated from the electrolyte by a separator or partitioning. At the center of the cell battery lies a carbon rod, which is the cathode. Zinc casing is considered as the anode.
Now that we know about the structure and parts of the dry cell battery, let us understand its working. Every portion of the battery device has chemical reactions occurring in it. While a reduction reaction occurs at the carbon electrode, oxidation occurs at the zinc casing, which is the anode. The chemical reactions that define the entire energy generation process are as follows:
The ammonium ion from ammonium chloride reacts with two electrons to produce ammonia and hydrogen gas.